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It is important to be able to draw and clearly label waterfalls for the Geography GCSE exam. You can find a picture of a waterfall in a Geography text book or good encyclopaedia. Here are the main facts and labels you need to know:

The rock on the top of the waterfall is a hard rock, it is good to give an example such as Limestone.

The rock underneath and behind the waterfall is a soft rock which can be easily worn away. Again, a good example of this is shale.


A step is present in the soft rock which forces the water downwards.

The water starts to erode as it is pushed down and creates a plunge pool.

The water keeps eroding and the waterfall gets bigger.

At this point the water starts undercutting the soft rock behind the waterfall.

This process continues and hard rock is broken off as the waterfall retreats.

Spray from the waterfall undercuts more.